Local Search

CNN iPhone App Feature Rich, Test for Paid News

CNN's new iPhone app offers a smorgasbord of news content, from text to live video. It also provides users the ability to directly upload video to CNN's iReport, its user-contributed news feature. The experience of watching video on the app (not YouTube) is especially good. Accordingly, the CNN app rivals and in some ways improves upon CNN's website itself. 

As you already know the app costs $1.99, which is a first for a news/content app (in my memory). It's also got prominent advertising, appearing as banners and full-page takeovers before video clips (expect commercials soon). Because the app's quality is so good and the fee is one-time only, rather than a subscription, I don't think the $1.99 will deter end users.

Those who don't want to pay can always go to the CNN mobile site and get the content for free, though the experience is not as good. 

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As this plays out over the next several months, news organizations will be watching to see how users respond. If they respond favorably we'll see more changing for apps, like this. The Wall Street Journal has announced it will be charging a subscription fee for mobile access in the near future. With the exception of the Wall Street Journal, which is subsidized by corporations and tax deductions, ongoing fees for mobile news apps are likely to be met with tepid user response. There's empirical evidence that users will flee when the pay walls go up. Accordingly the CNN formula is probably the right one: a one-time fee for the app, plus advertising. But we'll see.  

Many publishers, however, may use online and mobile subscriptions as a print retention tool -- by subscribing to print you get online access (and maybe a mobile app) as well. Tablets and eReaders will also probably support a subscription model but it remains to be seen.

MobilePeople and 'Local Discovery 2.0'

Lots of companies in the online local space have developed an app at this point: directory publishers, Yelp, Google and others. Then there are a host of companies that are mobile only: Geodelic, Aloqa, Where/uLocate and many others.

For traditional media and online publishers, mobile has quickly become a strategic part of the business with the expectation that it will only grow in importance and that an online-mobile strategy is critical for success "going forward." Just ask AT&T.

I recently did an evaluation (not published) of yellow pages iPhone apps. What I found was that there are some differentiated features but most of them are quite similar overall. MobilePeople calls this "Local discovery 1.0." Now, even at this early stage many companies are trying to figure out what's next; what is "Local discovery 2.0"?

One incorrect answer to that question is "augmented reality." AR is a piece potentially of an overall local user experience, along the lines of what Yelp has done with monocle. As it matures it will become more and more interesting. But right now it's quite limited and awkward in most respects. 

MobilePeople is well established in Europe and Asia but has less visibility in the US. As part of its informal US market launch the company spoke to us about its vision for "Local discovery 2.0." MobilePeople is building this on its "Liquid" platform and offering a range of interfaces and user experiences, depending on the publisher and potential use case.

What we saw was a prototype demo that was impressive; it combines some fairly radical interface options with back end innovations. The ultimate idea is that, beyond location, there are layers of context that come into play in offering content or search results to users. 

The company described a range of very interesting applications for its technology for different publisher types (directories, magazines, others). These are less about narrowly defined location-based searches -- or simply duplicating Internet experiences on the small screen -- and more about a holistic experience that travels with the end user throughout the day, fulfilling a range of tasks and objectives in the demo we saw.

It will be very interesting to see the practical implementations of this as they start to roll out. 

The Pre Coming to O2 in UK, Google App Comes to Windows Mobile

Google's mobile app, with location, is now available for Windows Mobile -- the last of the major smartphone platforms to get it I believe. Microsoft has/had a very strong competitor in its own local-mapping client. I'm not clear when the Bing version comes out. Also, Windows Mobile 6.5 is supposed to include Tellme integration at a deeper level. We'll see what that's like when 6.5 actually arrives. Reportedly it's coming to 30 handsets before the end of the year.

Across the Atlantic, the Palm Pre is coming to UK carrier O2 next month, which has also been the exclusive UK provider of the iPhone. It's rumored that the iPhone is soon going to be available through Orange in the UK but that is not confirmed. Orange and T-Mobile are combining their operations in the UK to create the largest carrier there. 

But back to the Pre, unless the pricing is dramatically different vs. the iPhone (read: less expensive), there's no way that the Pre can compete with the Apple device. As a Pre owner I have grown accustomed to my phone, but I remain ambivalent and annoyed by many of the awkward aspects of the device. And there are many: 

  • Lack of virtual keyboard
  • Cramped physical keyboard
  • No predictive text, no spell correct
  • No voice control/interface
  • Lack of apps (which is improving)

Hopefully some of these issues can be addressed by software updates and some will be remedied in future devices.


Related: Report finds Pre "second only to iPhone in consumer mindshare." 

Starbucks Testing Mobile Payments App

Coffee purveyor Starbucks launched two iPhone loyalty apps: MyStarbucks, which is essentially a store locator with menus, and Starbucks Card Mobile. The latter is intended to be a replacement for the Starbucks loyalty card and/or gift cards. It allows you to check your card balance and reload your card, among other things.

However at 16 locations Starbucks is testing a mobile payments system that uses a 2-D barcode scanner, so it functions as a wallet. 

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No single element of what Starbucks is doing is new; however the company has the clout and visibility to "mainstream" mobile payments in a way that few others do. If Starbucks deems the test a success and rolls it out to most of its locations you'll see other major QSR chains (e.g., McDonald's) follow suit. You can bet they'll be watching this.

We should also see more loyalty cards transferred onto mobile apps, specifically the iPhone in the near term, in the same way. The only challenge will be scanning/reading at the point of sale to capture the customer activity. In a parallel effort, AOL's Shortcuts program links online coupons with existing, physical loyalty cards to avoid the need to remember to bring paper coupons to a grocery store. The swipe triggers the discounts when the card and coupons are linked online.

ValPak simply has users show their iPhone app coupons to merchants to redeem them. It's up to the merchant to record or otherwise figure out how many redemptions occurred. 


Related: See this write up MoloRewards which offers Shortcuts-like POS integration. 

Snapshot of the Chinese Search Market

Here's a snapshot of the Chinese search market according to mostly Chinese government data compiled by Reuters:

  • Google and rival Baidu (which dominates on the PC side) have approximately 26% of the market each in mobile search
  • Total mobile market size: more than 600 million mobile subscribers (338 million PC Internet users)
  • Mobile Internet users in China: 155 million (compare US: 60-70 million) 
  • Users of mobile search in China: 40 million
  • Mobile search volume "rose 120 percent in the second quarter to 272 million clicks"

China's 3G networks are now being built out, which will accelarate growth of the mobile Internet. China's online advertising industry is still small and in the early stages of development.

Poynt & V-Enable Team Up for Lo-Mo Money

Multiplied Media's Poynt for BlackBerry app has been wildly successful, now with over a million downloads. One could argue that Poynt "owns" local search on the BlackBerry. Today the company announced that it had partnered with V-Enable for directory listings and corresponding advertising in the restaurants category:

Multiplied Media Corporation, an award-winning, Calgary-based provider of mobile local search services, and V-Enable, Inc., a leader in local search and advertising solutions for mobile and internet, are pleased to announce an agreement to deliver local directory related content and listings for the restaurant section of Poynt, Multiplied Media's flagship mobile local search application ...

V-Enable has partnered with multiple information and advertising providers to assemble one of the largest national local business listings and advertising networks offered through an automated turnkey platform that matches user inputs based on their search activity.

V-Enable, which came out of the directory assistance world, distributes local listings and ads from a wide range of directory and mobile advertising partners. Here's a video demo of Poynt in action on the BlackBerry Storm:

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Foursquare and Local Mobile Deals

I'll admit that I was an early Twitter critic and now I'm a convert. So I may be similarly wrong when I say the following about Foursquare: it's not a mainstream app or broad SMB ad platform because of its limited appeal to select groups of people (read: college students and twentysomethings with time on their hands). 

Recently Foursquare launched Foursquare for business, which is effectively a mobile coupon or loyalty program. There are a range of businesses seeking to drive visits via Foursquare. Here's an example:

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Foursquare can create a kind of loyal, cult following and potentially drive meaningful foot traffic for selected categories of businesses (restaurants/cafes, bars, clubs, youth oriented hotels). But the commitment required to play and the mild complexity of the game creates a barrier for older (read: busy) adults and most SMBs.

This is not to say that Foursquare can't achieve success but it won't have the broad appeal that a Twitter does today. The appeal of Twitter lies in its simplicity.


Related: There Goes the Neighborhood: How Foursquare is Subtly Threatening Your Anonymity

ValPak Now Comes in an iPhone App

Direct mail/coupon advertising provider ValPak now has an iPhone app. It's nicely executed and offers a number of ways to get access to deals: searching, browsing by category and a map-based view that shows users all the deals across categories in a specific area.

Previously, after launching a new PC site that was better optimized for mobile, the company saw a big uptick in mobile coupon "prints." In fact the company told me that there was a 25% conversion on average from mobile visitors. In this case "print" meant clicking through to a particular screen that showed a code.

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A seach in the iTunes apps store reveals almost 30 apps that represent themselves as coupon providers or offer coupons in one way or another. 

I was speaking on Friday to a big online coupon site and they were raising questions about POS redemption of mobile coupons as a barrier. ValPak has solved that problem by simply asking users to "show coupon to business when placing order." 

Coupons are a big area of opportunity for mobile. We have plenty of data that support this proposition. Compete's recent smartphone survey also shows that mobile deals/coupons are of high interest to mobile consumers: 

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AT&T Takes Stock in Vlingo

The size and shape of the mobile speech ecosystem has taken on new proportions as AT&T throws its research chops, as well as working capital into the ring with mobile speech specialist Vlingo. The two companies have forged a licensing agreement and strategic alliance whereby AT&T is acquiring a "minority stake" in Vlingo (without making the terms public). The move marks renewed interest by AT&T's in speech recognition with special attention to the mobile user experience. This is a bellwether for anticipated revenue growth and marketing activity surrounding mobile speech on a global basis. In a recent conversation Vlingo CEO Dave Grannan asserted that mobile speech adoption has hit an inflection point. Apparently AT&T agreed. In a not-so-veiled swipe at IBM and Nuance, Grannan asserts in a press release that, Vlingo has "seen significant accuracy and performance gains with Watson compared to other core speech technologies that will allow us to create a dramatically improved user experience."

In fact, Vlingo told us that it reached the 2 million user mark based on the accuracy and automation rates attainable with its current recognition engine, licensed from IBM. We do not have a "lab" here at I2Go but have been told that the today's recognition engines from Nuance, IBM, AT&T Watson, Novauris and Microsoft can all be tuned to reach accuracy rates in the 90% range in the field. This is a marked improvement from the 40% or less achieved with early services. Because accuracy can never reach 100%, the next step in marketing and service development will be to start managing user expectation so that failure to recognize that one word out of 10 is not the equivalent of a PC's "blue screen of death."

Over the years, Vlingo has made great strides in promoting a mobile voice user interface and defining distribution plans and pricing strategies. On the Blackberry, for instance, it offers a free version that supports Twitter updates, Web-based search and voice dialing and also offers a premium version ($17.99) to add text messaging and email origination. AT&T's renewed interest in mobile speech provides some market validation and portends heightened competition among a set of well-heeled leaders (Nuance/IBM, Microsoft/Tellme, Google) and a group of service-oriented innovators that includes Vlingo (now with AT&T), Novauris, Yap, Ditech Networks (with Simulscribe) and a couple dozen others.

delves into the market in great detail in this report called, "Mobile Speech: Unlocking Personal Apps, Features and Functions."

Aardvark Launches an iPhone App

Aardvark, which is now describing itself as “social search engine" is really more like an "answer community." Regardless of the label the company uses to describe itself it has launched an app for the iPhone. I've written about Aardvark several times in the past and wrote up today's announcement at Search Engine Land. 

This may turn out to be the turning point for the company (like Pandora or Urbanspoon's iPhone apps). We'll see. But that's my intuition. 

The thing that struck me as I spoke to co-founder and former Googler Max Ventilla is that with the arrival of the iPhone app people will start to "get" what Aardvark is all about and see use cases more clearly: word of mouth on the go. People have been able to get to Aardvark via mobile but not in a simple way (SMS is still a way off). But it's a broader service that isn't simply about "need it now" recommendations. I can ask where to go on my 10 wedding anniversary or who won the 1957 world series or what's the best pinot noir for under $20

The services that it most directly competes against are ChaCha and kgb. The difference is that Aardvark is trying to build a community of user contacts to respond to queries vs using professional or semi-professional agents. And building that community is where the challenge resides. 

To that end Aardvark leverages both Facebook (and Facebook Connect) and Twitter as "entry points." If Aardvark can gain traction in mobile it can build momentum toward faster and more comprehensive answers, which right now take from about 2-5 minutes to receive. But the quality of responses has been good so far for me. 

The PC-mobile integration will also benefit loyalty and engagement. 

I asked Ventilla about speech and voice interfaces. He said they had built one but that alpha testers were not ready for the additional "complexity" it apparently introduced. Ventilla isn't abandoning speech, he's just defferring it. He also told  me that, like speech, there are many more enhancements coming in future versions of the app.

Nokia's Navteq Buys Acuity Mobile for LBS Ads

Nokia's Navteq is getting (really) serious about mobile advertising. The company has announced the acquition of mobile marketing firm Acuity Mobile. The two firms have been working together since March, 2007, when Acuity's technology was selected to deliver LBS ads via Traffic.com (a Navteq subsidiary). According to the Navteq press release issued this morning:

The acquisition of Acuity Mobile, a US-based company with approximately 18 employees prior to close, underscores NAVTEQ's commitment to and investment in location-based advertising technology and solutions. Earlier this year, NAVTEQ launched NAVTEQ LocationPoint(TM) Advertising which enables advertisers to reach and engage consumers where and when they are making shopping and purchasing decisions. NAVTEQ has been leveraging Acuity Mobile technologies to meet the increasing demand for location-aware advertising services as the volume of location-aware devices and applications has grown . . .

NAVTEQ LocationPoint enables clients to target consumers with geographic precision. In turn, consumers will have advertising move with them, as their mobile mapping applications present ads, offers, coupons, or other promotions, based on their preferences. Advertising capabilities include audio, rich graphics, or calls to action such as routing to the closest advertiser storefront.

Acuity delivers LBS ads but with other targeting layers as well, including time, context and user preference. The acquisition helps stabilize a broader range of mobile advertising capabilities for Navteq, which has seen the PND market (one of its primiary outlets) look less and less viable with the rise of smartphones.

I'm wondering aloud whether Acuity will remain within Navteq or integrated more broadly into Nokia Interactive Advertising. I would also look for more Nokia mobile ad platform/network acquisitions in the near term.

Google's New Ad Formats Include Mobile 'Click to Call'

Google experimented with pay per call and click to call functionality in AdWords several years ago on the PC and then killed it. Now it appears that Google is returning to PPCall as a mobile ad format. Yesterday the search engine held a conference call/webinar with financial analysts to talk about the outlook for its business. Here's what was said by two analysts on the call about new ad formats that Google is introducing both online and in mobile:

From JP Morgan's Imran Khan (via Business Insider):

Google plans to introduce new ad formats. Google hasn’t made many changes to its text ad format and now sees this as a big opportunity. For example, advertisements for movies may be best in the form of trailers, and product advertisements may be best in the form of pictures and descriptions. The team is currently working on ad formats better suited to mobile, video, picture, maps and local searches.

From Citi's Mark Mahaney:

In an effort to bring more relevant ads to users, Google recently launched four new ad formats and expects to expand these over time: A) Video Ads – Users can play a video ad within the sponsored links section. This would be ideal for movie trailers, video games or companies selling complex products; B) Site Ads – An ad would contain sublinks to more specific products that take users directly to those products on the site; C) Product Ads – Ads that show pictures, prices and description of products; D) Local – Google shows address, directions and in some cases logos of local establishments; and E) Mobile – Google added click- to-call which is a new mobile monetization ad format. (emphasis added.)

PPCall is a natural ad format for mobile for self-evident reasons. The question in my mind is how Google will manage bidding and analytics vs. the rest of AdWords.


Update: Here's Google's official statement after I asked for clarification: 

We're indeed working on expanding our click-to-call ads to appear next to high-end mobile search results. The first tests of the ad will likely give users a choice of a Web URL *and* a click-to-call option within the ad. We will then evaluate the results and look into a click-to-call-only ad for high-end mobile.

Loopt First B.G. App on iPhone: Do We Care?

Loopt was heralded last week as the first iPhone app to run "in the background" so that it can continuously update a user's location. As a technical and "policy" milestone I agree it's noteworthy.

But I immediately found myself asking the question "so what?" Loopt, arguably the most visible of the mobile-only social networks, with distribution across most of the carriers and smartphone platforms, is probably already an "also-ran." While the site claims "millions of users," Facebook has 65 million mobile users (globally). Twitter is also more established as an updates tool (though not for all groups equally) and if I'm looking for local business or entertainment information there are myriad mobile sources (Loopt uses Yelp reviews). 

The thing that may keep Loopt afloat (unless or until there's an acquisition) is the fact that it has a subscription model ($3.99 per month). A smaller number of paying users will support the service vs. advertising only, which would require massive usage to generate meaningful revenues for the company. 

Some have argued that Loopt has turned into a dating service. The central feature of Loopt, continuous location awareness, is also something that consumers are highy ambivalent about, although in practice they want relevant ads and offers:


Source: , 4/09 (n=707)

AT&T Adds Video, PPCall Ads to iPhone App

AT&T has revamped its successful YPMobile iPhone app and included local business video profiles and PPCall ads. Previously there had been no ads on the app. According to the press release out this am. The main changes are the following: 

  • Tuning in to Video Profiles: Business video profiles found across tens of thousands of category and local geography combinations on YELLOWPAGES.COM and on the YELLOWPAGES.COM YouTube(TM) Channel are now easily accessible from the YPmobile App, giving advertisers another way to interact with consumers while on the go. 
  • Pay Per Call Ads: AT&T Interactive's Pay Per Call(R) advertisers now have the opportunity to be featured with their ads displayed at the top of relevant business search results on the YPmobile App. While YELLOWPAGES.COM subscription advertisers already have the opportunity to be distributed across AT&T Interactive's mobile applications, adding featured placement for Pay Per Call(R) advertisers leverages a unique opportunity to monetize the mobile local channel and offer businesses a cost-effective way to connect with mobile consumers.

It hasn't yet shown up (for me at least) in the iTunes store so I wasn't able to test out the video or take any screens of the ads. However PPCall is, for obvious reasons, well suited to mobile handsets and I imagine AT&T/Yellowpages.com will see some nice volumes to their advertisers from the iPhone app. 

Beyond its own mobile app Yellowpages.com advertisers gain mobile distribution through Bing: 

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Yahoo! Launches Stand-Alone Sites, Apps

Yahoo! announced this morning that it has launched three stand-alone properties for the iPhone, BlackBerry and mobile Web:

It's just coincidence that all three of these start with the letter "F."

Each site has a range of features, including customization. For example, mobile Flickr allows direct uploads from the camera (as you might imagine) with geotagging for both still images and video. Finance and Fantasy Football have a number of specific features and should also be extremely popular. 

The mobile Web versions of all these properties can also be accessed from Yahoo!'s mobile site. The apps provide a somewhat richer experience, but the mobile Web versions are very good. 

PNDs: From Hardware to Software

As more and more people buy smartphones with location-enabled maps or use free or low-cost navigation tools available on smartphones the PND market becomes less and less viable as an independent hardware category. We've argued this in the past. The arrival of TomTom, among others, and a slew of car mounts for the iPhone make the smartphone a near-complete replacement for PNDs.

Garmin is making phones (with ASUS) to extend its life, but it's now only a matter of time before the hardware side of the category is swallowed up by smartphones. Dash Navigation, which had intended to revolutionize the PND market by offering two-way connectivity, didn't last a year. In June it was acquired by RIM to support navigation services on the BlackBerry.

The only way that PNDs can survive as a separate hardware category is by either being priced below smartphones or by beefing up available content and functionality, which is at odds with cheaper pricing. The danger if they move to pure software strategy, however, is that free or very low cost apps do a "good enough" job of helping users get from A to B to discourage the majority from buying or subscribing. 

Wikitude Offers Another AR "Browser" for Android

Wikitude is an augmented reality (AR) "browser," the second I discovered (the company said it preceeded Layar). AR apps are starting to emerge and proliferate on both the iPhone and Android platforms. As one high-profile example, there's an AR element of the new Yelp iPhone app. For more background see:

Wikitude offers a number of ways to diplay and view content: as a list (conventional search results), on a map or through a camera-based AR display. Giving people these various options makes the application much more useful than if it only offered the camera-AR display.

There are currently three data sources that feed into Wikitude results: Wikipedia, the community and UK local search provider Qype (US data are also in the app). There's also a Wikitude AR naviation system, which is potentially more useful than the Wikitude AR local search functionality. Here's a video of the "augmented navigation" in action:

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Wikitude is a product of Austrian company Mobilizy. 

As a search tool, AR starts to take advantage of the unique attributes and features of the mobile device, rather than just being an extension of the PC with better location awareness. That said, AR is in its infancy and still not that useful. As I said previously:

There are use cases and scenarios that will emerge over time that will be very well suited to this new interface and search tool. Today what we have however is a kind of demo version of future experiences that will be truly useful and impressive.

Vlingo Enters Europe Via Nokia

Mobile speech specialist Vlingo is making some aggressive moves into Western Europe. Versions of its flagship product are now available in UK English, German, Spanish and Italian - all downloadable from Nokia's OVI Store for selected handset models. The "Basic" version of Vlingo is available as a free download from OVI. It enables mobile subscribers to use their voice to open mobile applications or features, send a limited number of text or email, find contacts and dial numbers, search the web, and create notes.

Following the now-famous "freemium" model (credited in Wikipedia to VC Fred Wilson, but perpetuated by Tom Evslin in his blog and Chis Anderson in his recent book "Free"), the company offers "Vlingo Plus" for a one-time "upgrade" fee of £12.99 or €14.99 (roughly $21 by today's exchange rate) or for a monthly fee of £3.49 / €3.99 (roughly $7.70). In the UK, Germany, Italy & Spain, Vlingo Plus gives users the ability to originate (by speaking) an unlimited number of text and email messages.

Another breakthrough for Vlingo was revealed today when Nokia announced that the basic version of its software will be pre-loaded on two of its smartphones. Both the he Nokia E72 (which vies for the business market with the likes of the Blackberry 9630) and the recently released QWERTY-keyboard-with-slider-and-touchscreen N97 (which is vying for attention versus the iPhone, Android and Pre) will ship with Vlingo on board. Nokia N97 PR 2.0 software users will also be able to update their Facebook status by voice. Dave Grannan, president of Vlingo, pointed out to us that wireless subscribers can upgrade to the Vlingo Plus at the touch of a button thanks to Nokia's deployment of OpenBit licensing management software that supports multinational, multicarrier billing. Once the decision is made to upgrade, the process is essentially frictionless.

It is no surprise that Nokia has opted to pre-package Vlingo on the E72, as well as the N97. The application has had tremendous success among message-hungry users of RIM Blackberry. So much so that a ranking of "bestselling paid apps" that appeared in the August 31st issue of Fortune Magazine placed Vlingo Plus (with its $17.99 price tag) at the top of the list. There is no better testimony to the value of the voice user interface than the way mobile device owners vote with their wallets.

uLocate Lands the Where? App on T-Mobile' Web2Go Deck

uLocate Communications has been engaged in a long march to make its flagship application, Where, available through every phone with a mobile browser. Its efforts took an incremental step forward with the addition of T-Mobile USA to a roster of wireless carriers that already includes AT&T Mobility, Sprint, MetroPCS and several MVNOs like Boost Mobile and Virgin. On the device side, it has meant creation and support of products, operating systems and "app stores" operated by Nokia, RIM and Apple iPhone and the makers of phones running Android.

Where is distributed as a free application that displays information about nearby people, places and things to do. Its data includes local gas prices, movies and restaurant reviews as well as weather and news. It supports local business search through a relationship with YellowPages.com and social networking through a feature called Beacon Buddies (a trademarked service obtained from Helio). Conspicuous in its absence is Verizon Wireless, but we're always interested in seeing whether inclusion in the Blackberry App World means that applications can appear on RIM devices, regardless of a subscriber's carrier.

ServiceMagic App Improves Upon PC Site

It's a rare case when a mobile app improves upon a PC experience but in my view ServiceMagic has done just that. The home improvement site and marketing platform for contractors and other service businesses just launched an iPhone app this week.

At the center of the new app are images of home improvement projects and design jobs, drawn from the site but which are generally buried on the PC. Users can also upload images directly from their phones. Here are some images from the app:

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The app has many nice features, though there's room for growth and improvement. I discussed those areas with ServiceMagic/IAC. They acknowledge this is an imperfect "version 1" and have some interesting ideas about future improvements. But they said that in just the past couple of days they're already seeing high levels of engagement with the imagery, as one might expect.

The more that ServiceMagic can make the app a kind of to-do list or "dashboard" for home improvement projects and design ideas the more it will succeed as a driver of leads to their contractor-advertisers.